Додатак:Латински кардинални бројеви

Cardinal numeralsУреди

When someone counts items, that person uses cardinal values. In grammatical terms, a cardinal numeral is a word used to represent such a countable quantity. The English words one

, two

, three

, four

, etc. are all examples of cardinal numerals. In Latin, most cardinal numerals behave as indeclinable adjectives. They are usually associated with a noun that is counted, but do not change their endings to agree grammatically with that noun. The exceptions are ūnus (one)

, duo (two)

, trēs (three)

, and multiples of centum (hundred)

, all of which decline. Additionally, although mīlle (thousand)

is an indeclinable adjective in the singular, it becomes a declinable noun in the plural. These exceptions are further explained in later sections.

Summary tableУреди

1 - 10 11 - 20 x 10 x 100
1 I ūnus, ūna, ūnum 11 XI ūndecim 10 X decem 100 C centum
2 II duo, duae, duo 12 XII duodecim 20 XX vīgintī 200 CC ducentī, -ae, -a
3 III trēs, tria 13 XIII trēdecim 30 XXX trīgintā 300 CCC trecentī, -ae, -a
4 IV quattuor 14 XIV quattuordecim 40 XL quadrāgintā 400 CD quadringentī, -ae, -a
5 V quīnque 15 XV quīndecim 50 L quīnquāgintā 500 D quīngentī, -ae, -a
6 VI sex 16 XVI sēdecim 60 LX sexāgintā 600 DC sescentī, -ae, -a
7 VII septem 17 XVII septendecim 70 LXX septuāgintā 700 DCC septingentī, -ae, -a
8 VIII octō 18 XVIII duodēvīgintī 80 LXXX octōgintā 800 DCCC octingentī, -ae, -a
9 IX novem 19 XIX ūndēvīgintī 90 XC nōnāgintā 900 CM nōngentī, -ae, -a
10 X decem 20 XX vīgintī 100 C centum 1000 M mīlle

1–10Уреди

The smaller cardinal numerals, from ūnus (one)

to decem (ten)

, are all singular (not made by combining two numbers).

ūnusУреди

Inflection of ūnus ( I )
M F N MM FF NN
nom || || || ||
gen || || || ||
dat || || || ||
acc || || || ||
abl || || || ||
voc || || || ||

Inflection: The Latin ūnus (one)

inflects like an irregular first and second declension adjective. The irregularities occur in the singular genitive, which ends in -īus instead of the usual or -ae, and in the singular dative, which ends in instead of the usual or -ae. The choice of ending will agree with the gender of the associated noun: ūnus

equus

("one horse"), ūna

clāvis

("one key"), ūnum

saxum

("one stone"). The ending will also agree with the grammatical case of the associated noun: ūnīus

equī

(genitive), ūnam

clāvem

(accusative), ūnī

saxō

(dative). Plural: Although it may seem strange at first sight, ūnus

does have a set of plural forms. These forms are used when the associated noun has a plural form, but an inherently singular meaning. For example, the Latin noun castra (camp)

occurs only as a plural neuter form and takes plural endings, even though it identifies one object, hence: ūnōrum

castrōrum

("of one camp"). Compounds: When ūnus

is used to form compound numerals, such as ūnus

et

vīgintī

("twenty-one"), the case and gender agree with the associated noun, although the singular is used: vīgintī

et

ūnam

fēminās

vīdī

. Unlike duo

and trēs

, the word ūnus

is almost never used with mīlle (thousand)

to indicate how many thousand.


duoУреди

Inflection of duo ( II )
MM FF NN
nom || ||
gen () || || ()
dat || ||
acc /Шаблон:ambox || Шаблон:l || Шаблон:l
style="background:#Шаблон:Latincolour1;"| abl style="background:#Шаблон:Latincolour2;"| Шаблон:l Шаблон:l Шаблон:l
style="background:#Шаблон:Latincolour1;"| voc style="background:#Шаблон:Latincolour2;"| Шаблон:l Шаблон:l Шаблон:l

Inflection: The Latin Шаблон:m has a highly irregular inflection, derived in part from the old Indo-European dual number. While some of the endings resemble those of a first and second declension adjective, others resemble those of a third declension adjective. The inflection of Шаблон:m is very similar.

The choice of ending will agree with the gender of the associated noun, which will necessarily be plural: Шаблон:m Шаблон:m ("two horses"), Шаблон:m Шаблон:m ("two keys"), Шаблон:m Шаблон:m ("two stones"). The ending will also agree with the grammatical case of the associated noun: Шаблон:m Шаблон:m (accusative), Шаблон:m Шаблон:m (genitive), Шаблон:m Шаблон:m (dative).

Compounds: When Шаблон:m is used to form compound numerals, such as Шаблон:m Шаблон:m Шаблон:m or Шаблон:m Шаблон:m ("twenty-two"), the case and gender agree with the associated noun. This is also the case when used with the plural of Шаблон:m to indicate how many thousands: Шаблон:m Шаблон:m ("two thousands"), Шаблон:m Шаблон:m ("of two thousands"). Шаблон:-

trēsУреди

Inflection of trēs ( III )
style="background:#Шаблон:Latincolour3;"| style="background:#Шаблон:Latincolour3;"| MM, FF style="background:#Шаблон:Latincolour3;"| NN
style="background:#Шаблон:Latincolour1;"| nom style="background:#Шаблон:Latincolour2;"| Шаблон:l Шаблон:l
style="background:#Шаблон:Latincolour1;"| gen style="background:#Шаблон:Latincolour2;"| Шаблон:l Шаблон:l
style="background:#Шаблон:Latincolour1;"| dat style="background:#Шаблон:Latincolour2;"| Шаблон:l Шаблон:l
style="background:#Шаблон:Latincolour1;"| acc style="background:#Шаблон:Latincolour2;"| Шаблон:l Шаблон:l
style="background:#Шаблон:Latincolour1;"| abl style="background:#Шаблон:Latincolour2;"| Шаблон:l Шаблон:l
style="background:#Шаблон:Latincolour1;"| voc style="background:#Шаблон:Latincolour2;"| Шаблон:l Шаблон:l

Inflection: The Latin Шаблон:m inflects like a plural third declension adjective with two endings in the nominative. Notice that the masculine and feminine endings are identical.

The choice of ending will agree with the gender of the associated noun, which will necessarily be plural: Шаблон:m Шаблон:m ("three horses"), Шаблон:m Шаблон:m ("three keys"), Шаблон:m Шаблон:m ("three stones"). The ending will also agree with the grammatical case of the associated noun: Шаблон:m Шаблон:m (accusative), Шаблон:m Шаблон:m (genitive), Шаблон:m Шаблон:m (dative).

Compounds: When Шаблон:m is used to form compound numerals, such as Шаблон:m Шаблон:m Шаблон:m or Шаблон:m Шаблон:m ("twenty-three"), the case and gender agree with the associated noun. This is also the case when used with the plural of Шаблон:m to indicate how many thousands: Шаблон:m Шаблон:m ("three thousands"), Шаблон:m Шаблон:m ("of three thousands"). Шаблон:-

IV to XУреди

1 - 10
1 I ūnus, ūna, ūnum
2 II duo, duae, duo
3 III trēs, tria
4 IV quattuor
5 V quīnque
6 VI sex
7 VII septem
8 VIII octō
9 IX novem
10 X decem

The numerals Шаблон:m through Шаблон:m are all indeclinable, and never change their endings to match an associated noun. Each of these numerals has a single immutable form in all situations.

Many of these numerals are mirrored in English words (such as Шаблон:m, Шаблон:m, Шаблон:m, Шаблон:m). The numerals for 7 through 10 appear in the English names of months (Шаблон:m, Шаблон:m, Шаблон:m, and Шаблон:m). These months were the seventh through tenth of the Roman calendar, since the Roman year began with Шаблон:m.

11 - 20Уреди

11 - 20
11 XI ūndecim
12 XII duodecim
13 XIII trēdecim
14 XIV quattuordecim
15 XV quīndecim
16 XVI sēdecim
17 XVII septendecim
18 XVIII octōdecim
19 XIX novemdecim
20 XX vīgintī

Latin cardinals larger than Шаблон:m but less than Шаблон:m are constructed by addition. The ending Шаблон:m (a form of Шаблон:m) is attached to the numerals Шаблон:m through Шаблон:m. The resultant compound carries the same value as the mathematical sum of the components. For example Шаблон:m is Шаблон:m + Шаблон:m. English does much the same by attaching Шаблон:m (a form of Шаблон:m) to smaller numerals, such as the numeral Шаблон:m which is Шаблон:m + Шаблон:m.

In some of these compounds, a spelling and pronunciation change occurs during the attachment, so that Шаблон:m + Шаблон:m drops the -x and lengthens the e to yield Шаблон:m. This kind of change also occurs in English, as in Шаблон:m + Шаблон:m which softens the sound of the v and drops the e to yield Шаблон:m.

Exceptions: There are two exceptions to the general pattern for forming the teens. In Classical Latin, the numerals for 18 and 19 are more frequently written as subtractive compounds. So, although 18 may be written as Шаблон:m, it is more often written as Шаблон:m (literally "two from twenty"). Likewise, the numeral for 19 may be written as Шаблон:m, but is more often encountered as Шаблон:m.

For more information about the subtractive pattern of construction, see the section on "counting backwards". Шаблон:-

20+Уреди

× 10Уреди

Multiples of ten
10 X decem 60 LX sexāgintā
20 XX vīgintī 70 LXX septuāgintā
30 XXX trīgintā 80 LXXX octōgintā
40 XL quadrāgintā 90 XC nōnāgintā
50 L quīnquāgintā 100 C centum

× 100Уреди

Inflection of ducentī ( CC )
style="background:#Шаблон:Latincolour3;"| style="background:#Шаблон:Latincolour3;"| MM style="background:#Шаблон:Latincolour3;"| FF style="background:#Шаблон:Latincolour3;"| NN
style="background:#Шаблон:Latincolour1;"| nom style="background:#Шаблон:Latincolour2;"| Шаблон:l Шаблон:l Шаблон:l
style="background:#Шаблон:Latincolour1;"| gen style="background:#Шаблон:Latincolour2;"| Шаблон:l Шаблон:l Шаблон:l
style="background:#Шаблон:Latincolour1;"| dat style="background:#Шаблон:Latincolour2;"| Шаблон:l Шаблон:l Шаблон:l
style="background:#Шаблон:Latincolour1;"| acc style="background:#Шаблон:Latincolour2;"| Шаблон:l Шаблон:l Шаблон:l
style="background:#Шаблон:Latincolour1;"| abl style="background:#Шаблон:Latincolour2;"| Шаблон:l Шаблон:l Шаблон:l
style="background:#Шаблон:Latincolour1;"| voc style="background:#Шаблон:Latincolour2;"| Шаблон:l Шаблон:l Шаблон:l

The numeral Шаблон:m is the only "hundred" that is indeclinable.

All multiples of Шаблон:m up to Шаблон:m, e.g. Шаблон:m, Шаблон:m, etc., decline as a plural adjective of the first and second declension. Шаблон:-

Multiples of one hundred
100 C centum 1 600 DC sescentī, -ae, -a
200 CC ducentī, -ae, -a 700 DCC septingentī, -ae, -a
300 CCC trecentī, -ae, -a 800 DCCC octingentī, -ae, -a
400 CD quadringentī, -ae, -a 900 CM nōngentī, -ae, -a
500 D quīngentī, -ae, -a 1000 M mīlle, mīlia (mīllia) 2
1 Шаблон:m does not inflect.
2 see the following section on mīlle.

mīlleУреди

Inflection of mīlle ( M )
style="background:#Шаблон:Latincolour3;"| style="background:#Шаблон:Latincolour3;"| C (adj.) style="background:#Шаблон:Latincolour3;"| NN (noun)
style="background:#Шаблон:Latincolour1;"| nom style="background:#Шаблон:Latincolour2;"| Шаблон:l Шаблон:l (Шаблон:l)
style="background:#Шаблон:Latincolour1;"| gen style="background:#Шаблон:Latincolour2;"| Шаблон:l Шаблон:l (Шаблон:l)
style="background:#Шаблон:Latincolour1;"| dat style="background:#Шаблон:Latincolour2;"| Шаблон:l Шаблон:l (Шаблон:l)
style="background:#Шаблон:Latincolour1;"| acc style="background:#Шаблон:Latincolour2;"| Шаблон:l Шаблон:l (Шаблон:l)
style="background:#Шаблон:Latincolour1;"| abl style="background:#Шаблон:Latincolour2;"| Шаблон:l Шаблон:l (Шаблон:l)
style="background:#Шаблон:Latincolour1;"| voc style="background:#Шаблон:Latincolour2;"| Шаблон:l Шаблон:l (Шаблон:l)

The Latin Шаблон:m is irregular in that it has two forms. In the singular, it is an indeclinable adjective, but in the plural it is a noun that declines like a third declension neuter i-stem. Notice that the genitive plural ending is -ium.

Singular: In the singular, Шаблон:m functions as an adjective. This singular form is indeclinable, so its ending will remain the same rather than agree with the case or gender of the associated noun. However, the associated noun will necessarily be plural: Шаблон:m Шаблон:m ("thousand horses"), Шаблон:m Шаблон:m ("thousand keys"), Шаблон:m Шаблон:m ("thousand stones"). This is true regardless of the case or gender of the associated noun.

Plural: In the plural, Шаблон:m functions as a noun, and will inflect according to how it is used in the sentence (subject, direct object, etc.). The associated noun being counted will necessarily be in the genitive plural, and so will not agree with the grammatical case of Шаблон:m. Note that, if the numeral before Шаблон:m is Шаблон:m or Шаблон:m, then it will take a neuter form in the same grammatical case as Шаблон:m: Шаблон:m Шаблон:m Шаблон:m (nominative, "eight thousand of horses"), Шаблон:m Шаблон:m Шаблон:m Шаблон:m (ablative, "with three thousand of keys"), Шаблон:m Шаблон:m Шаблон:m (genitive, "of two thousand of stones"). Шаблон:-

Compound cardinalsУреди

Latin cardinal numerals larger than Шаблон:m, that are not multiples of ten, are assembled as compound words. The components of these compounds are the numerals Шаблон:m through Шаблон:m and the multiples of Шаблон:m, the multiples of Шаблон:m, and Шаблон:m.

Compound numerals in Latin are assembled by one of two basic methods: additive or subtractive. Most compound numerals are additive, meaning that the value of the compound numeral is calculated by adding the values of the component words. However, a few Latin compound numerals are subtractive, meaning that the value of the compound numeral is calculated by subtracting the values of the component words. A large-valued compound numeral may incorporate both additive and subtractive components.

Additive compoundsУреди

Counting backwardsУреди

Tens +8 ( or –2 ) Tens +9 ( or –1 )
18 XVIII Шаблон:l 19 XIX Шаблон:l
28 XXVIII Шаблон:l 29 XXIX Шаблон:l
38 XXXVIII Шаблон:l 39 XXXIX Шаблон:l
48 XLVIII Шаблон:l 49 XLIX Шаблон:l
58 LVIII Шаблон:l 59 LIX Шаблон:l
68 LXVIII Шаблон:l 69 LXIX Шаблон:l
78 LXXVIII Шаблон:l 79 LXXIX Шаблон:l
88 LXXXVIII Шаблон:l 89 LXXXIX Шаблон:l
98 XCVIII Шаблон:l Шаблон:l 99 XCIX Шаблон:l Шаблон:l

Of the Latin compound numerals less than Шаблон:m, sixteen are normally subtractive. All of these special cases represent values that are one or two less than a multiple of ten, and have names that subtract from a starting value rather than adding to that value. These sixteen exceptions are displayed in the table at right. Note that the compound numerals for 98 and 99 are not among the special cases, but instead are formed in the usual additive way. Subtractive compounds normally are written as single words (with no spaces) and are indeclinable.

Numerals representing cardinal values that are eight more (two less) than a multiple of ten are constructed literally as:

Шаблон:m + Шаблон:m + multiple of ten

Thus, the numeral for 48 is normally written as Шаблон:m, rather than as the expected Шаблон:m Шаблон:m or Шаблон:m Шаблон:m Шаблон:m. The latter two additive forms are possible, but are not found in Classical Latin as frequently as the subtractive form.

Numerals representing cardinal values that are nine more (one less) than a multiple of ten are constructed literally as:

Шаблон:m + Шаблон:m + multiple of ten

Thus, the numeral for 49 is normally written as Шаблон:m, rather than as the expected Шаблон:m Шаблон:m or Шаблон:m Шаблон:m Шаблон:m. The latter two additive forms are possible, but are not found in Classical Latin as frequently as the subtractive form. Шаблон:-

GrammarУреди

Numbers are almost always treated as adjectives, and often come before the noun. They may be used alone as substantive nouns, but as most are indeclinable, this tends to be ambiguous. Mille behaves differently; in the plural, as Шаблон:m, the noun being counted must be in the genitive plural. For example, "two thousand soldiers" would be "Шаблон:l Шаблон:l militum" (literally, "two thousands of soldiers). Thus a mile is mille passūs (literally, "a thousand paces"), but two miles is duo milia passuum (literally, "two thousands of paces").

To denote one's age, which in English is expressed in the construction I am ... years old, in Latin one would most commonly say Habeo ... annos (literally, "I have ... years"). The numeral is in the accusative plural, if it declines.

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